In the framework of a United Nations Development Account (UNDA) funded project entitled “Sustainable transport connectivity and implementation of transport related SDGs in selected landlocked and transit/bridging countries”, Fadiah Achmadi was appointed as an international consultant to develop a set of Sustainable Inland Transport Connectivity Indicators (SITCIN). This project aims to strengthen the capacities of five countries (Georgia, Kazakhstan, Serbia, Paraguay and Jordan) to design and implement an evidence-based transport policy framework, by applying the developed indicators, that fosters sustainable transport connectivity at the national, regional and international levels.
Landlocked Developing Countries
There are 32 Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs) across Africa, Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, and Latin America. LLDCs face challenges to access world markets, not only due to their geographical locations that lack of direct access to the sea, but also because their access to the sea are often made complicated by the transit countries, for instance by limiting access of LLDCs’ road carriers to their sea ports. Some LLDCs even need to cross multiple transit countries to access sea ports, which leads to higher transport costs and transit times.
Increasing connectivity is the crucial way to transform landlocked countries into land linked countries. Connectivity can be defined as “connectedness” in terms of transport, trade, customs and logistics processes. A developed transport connectivity system would allow transport modes and infrastructure to be well-interlinked. This has an even more important meaning for landlocked and bridging/transit countries, given the former’s absence of a direct territorial access to the sea and to maritime routes. Having efficient connectivity is necessary to face effectively the challenges arising from their geographic location and to exploit alternatively the remoteness and isolation from world markets.
Improving connectivity is not just dependent on hard infrastructure development, which needs to be completed to ensure the smooth movements of passengers and freight, but also a range soft infrastructure that include regulatory framework and procedures governing the hard infrastructure, legal framework, legal aspects, and institutional capacity.
Taking into account the importance of both hard and soft infrastructure, and the ultimate goal to implement the transport related SDGs, the developed indicators are structured based on the three pillars of sustainability: Economic Sustainability, Social Sustainability, and Environmental Sustainability. The indicators are also developed for three inland transport modes (road, rail, and inland waterways) including inter-modal transport.
More information on the project can be found here.