Sustainable Public Transport Policy
The Amsterdam city region consists of 16 municipalities in North Holland. It is part of the Randstad metropolitan area. As such, air quality in this area is one of the important issues. The air quality in Amsterdam is lower than the average air quality in North West Europe. The traffic on these streets produces PM10 and NOx. These emissions are trapped by high buildings, the so-called Canyon Effect. However, most people live in high buildings along narrow streets. With as a result, a situation which negatively influences the health of the inhabitants.
The City Region of Amsterdam is a public transport (PT) authority, that administers four public transport concessions. The concession areas are Waterland, Zaanstreek, Amsterdam, and Amstelland-Meerlanden. With its role as a PT authority, the City Region wanted to reduce the local emissions produced by the PT bus fleet in its region.
In 2012, the emission norm of the PT bus fleet in this region varied from Euro 2 to EEV. As an example, a Euro 3 bus emits around 24 gram NOx per liter diesel. An EEV bus emits 10 gram NOx per liter diesel. While an electric bus emits zero NOx.
The study started with defining areas with a high concentration of PM10 and NOx. The result shows that most of the indicated areas are located in the city of Amsterdam. Think of the city centre and high-density residential areas. The study suggest a smart deployment system, in order to improve this situation. Which means to deploy the EEV buses in the city centers and high-density areas. While buses with lower emission norms are for low-density areas.
However, this solution is a quick-win solution. This implementation does not involve high investments of purchasing new and greener buses. Because, it is not a sustainable solution to purchase new buses, while the current buses are not written off yet.
*) This project was undertaken when Fadiah was working as a full-time consultant at Balancia.