CO2 Dutch Public Transport
This study gives an overview of the CO2 emissions per passenger kilometer for each public transport (PT) authority in The Netherlands in 2013. This study only calculate the emission from the bus concessions. At that time, there were around 5,000 PT buses in about 50 concessions under 18 PT authorities.
The formula used for this research is:
CO2 emissions Tank-to-Wheel (TTW) are the CO2 emitted during the operations of the buses. CO2 emissions Well-to-Tank (WTT) are produced during the production of the fuel. For diesel, for example, it concerns the emissions from oil extraction, transportation and refinery. This however, does not include the construction of the refinery.
The calculation of the number of passenger-kilometres was the greatest challenge from all of the three components. Reliable data on this field was too little at that time.
As a basis for this study, we used the KpVV publication about the Dutch public transport development
in 2002-2009 (see here) as a reference. The disadvantage of this study is that it concerns the figures up to 2009. In that period paper tickets with strip-system (strippenkaart) were used as a payment system. As such the data of passenger-kilometres was less reliable than the nowadays PT smart card system. Therefore, we also considered other literatures in order to estimate the growth of the passenger-kilometres.
The result of this research gives an overview of the CO2 emissions from bus public transport in 18 authorities in the Netherlands. The city region of Arnhem-Nijmegen had the lowest CO2 emissions in 2013. Thanks to its greenest bus fleet in the Netherlands. This research also attempted to promote openness in the Dutch PT sector. Every public transport authority must have a clear idea about the performance of the PT companies operating in their concession areas. This can be done by requiring the PT companies to regularly report the sustainability performance of their fleet.
The final report can be downloaded through this link (in Dutch). Would you like to have a summary of the study result in English? Please contact us here. We would also love to hear from you should you want to discuss it.